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"Yanardagh" State historical-and-cultural Natural Reservation
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Yanar DagYanar Dag (burning mountain) is located in the western part of Mahammadi village, 27 km from the center of Baku, 2 km from the center of the village, on the left of Mahammadi-Digah highway. The fires in the area are the result of blazing up of natural gas flows seeping from the fissures created as a result of rock erosions in layer of oil and gas in depths of the earth, tectonic activities, as well as eruption of mud volcanos – in short, volcanic-tectonic processes. Sometimes flames in Yanar Dag jet into the air 10-5 meters. The information about that that the fire in the area has started since the ancient times of the history has been proved by both geological investigations carried out in the territory, and historical resources. There were three burning hills on the opposite of Yanar Dag. Today those hills are extinguished. Three tongues of flame and sea symbols which are the symbols of Baku are accepted referring to Yanar Dag. It is worth to note that several historical resources elucidating the early Middle Ages provide interesting information that on the coasts of the Caspian Sea in the territory of Baku city there were constantly burning lands, even burning water and the area was called Atash-i Baquan (Fire of Baku). One and perhaps the first of such historical sources providing information about “eternal flames” in the area burning day and night is Greek historian Priscus of Panium. While describing the Caucasian Albania at the beginning of V century, Priscus has talked about “flames rising from underwater rocks”. Besides this, books like Al-Masudi’s “Muruj az-zahab va meavhin-al javhar”, Al-Farisi Al Istakhri’s “Kitab al-masalik val-mamalik” (“Book on the roads and countries”), Al-Muqaddasi’s “Ahsan at-taqasim fi marifat al-aqalim” (“The best divisions for knowledge of regions”) and others provide information about the burning lands in this area. The area of Yanar Dag was declared state historical-cultural and natural reserve with the Order dated May 2, 2007 of the President of the Republic of Azerbaijan. The area of the reserve is 64.55 ha. It covers the areas of Gurd yuvasi (“Wolf’s Nest”), a thousand years old two graveyards and an ancient mosque, Gotur spring, Ali dashi (stone of Ali), Kardashi, Girmaki valley and Yanar Dag.
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